Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Theory of Reconsolidation - 753 Words

The Theory of Reconsolidation - What is it and how can it impact on our lives? Learning is a very important aspect of humans and creatures alike. Not only is it essential to the survival and adaption into this world but it also defines who we are as individuals (Schiller et al, 2010; Tronson Taylor, 2007). Memories from past experiences shape the people that we are today. A crucial element to learning is memory, without it we would not be able to retain information. The process of memory is very distinct and consists of several different stages: acquisition of memory, consolidation, retrieval and then either reconsolidation or extinction (Debiec Ledoux, 2004; Diergaarde, Schoffelmeer De Vries, 2008). As memory is such a critical aspect of learning, it is no wonder that its distinct process has become the topic of much research in the neurobiological universe (Hupbach et al, 2007; Nader Hardt, 2009). After a new memory is learnt, it enters the process of encoding during which the memory is labile and capable of disruption until it becomes stabilised over a period of time (Nader Einarsson, 2010; Nader et al, 2000). This process is called consolidation and originally consisted of the theory that once stabilised in the brain, it remains fixed (Suzuki et al, 2004). This theory has been rebutted by the acceptance of reconsolidation, a theory that imposes the ideology that when memories are retrieved, through similar experiences (Lee, 2009), they become labile until,Show MoreRelatedUnderlying Neurobiological Processes1706 Words   |  7 Pages2012; Si et al., 2012). This is known as memory reconsolidation (Yue et al.; Si et al.). Finally, the re-exposure to a particular context without reinforcement can lead to memory extinction (Merlo Romano, 2008).That is, the temporary weakening of an earlier conditioned response can lead to extinction (Merlo Romano). However, the number of eve nts or duration of a single event in that exposure will determine whether memory extinction or reconsolidation is activated (Merlo Romano). Although learningRead MoreThe Process of Memory Reconsolidation1581 Words   |  6 PagesIn recent years, much debate and research has occurred over the process of memory reconsolidation. Understanding the processes that underlie memory formation retrieval and storage is key to understanding and guiding treatment for patients with conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder. This essay discusses the processes of consolidation and how that impacts on reconsolidation and the implications of this knowledge on patients suffering posttraumatic stress disorder. Much psychological researchRead MoreThe Curent Understanding of the Neurobiology of Memory Reconsolidation and Its Implications for Psychology1863 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay is focusing on the current understanding of the neurobiology of memory reconsolidation and its implications for psychology. This paper will specifically focus on the molecular mechanisms of reconsolidation and research relating to fear memories and using propranolol and D-cycloserine as a treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory consolidation is the process by which memories are stabilised after being acquired. Consolidation studies have traditionally focused on the hippocampusRead MoreTaking a Look at Memory Consolidation1464 Words   |  6 PagesSince Nader, Schafe LaDoux (2000), challenged the previously heralded definition of memory consolidation, an influx of research addressing various theories of; consolidation, reconsolidation and potential clinical implications have surfaced. This ess ay aims to conglomerate the current understanding of memory reconsolidation, furthermore addressing the resonance upon clinical psychology. Neuroscience widely recognised that memories undertake the process of consolidation (Nader Einarsson, 2010)Read MoreThe retrieval of a memory can initiate processes in our brain that actively consolidate and1100 Words   |  5 PagesThe retrieval of a memory can initiate processes in our brain that actively consolidate and strengthen the memory trace, a process known as memory reconsolidation. Memories retrieved are thought to increase their stability once they undergo the process of consolidation. Retrieval of a memory trace may cause another liable phase to require more processing to keep the memory stable after retrieval; the brain systemically acquires cellular mechanisms to initiate a new round of protein synthesis thatRead MoreThe Accuracy Of An Individual s Memory1506 Words   |  7 PagesUsing this example, we can relate it to eyewitness questioning as highly sensitive and the wrong choice of words could become demand cues. Eyewitnesses will give what the questioner wants instead of the actual account. Secondly, the process of reconsolidation also gives rise to minformation effect. â€Å"It is the activation of memory traces which are already consolidated and formed as long lasting memories†, (Braddeley, Eyseneck and Anderson, 2009, p.168). Reactivation of these memories traces makes itRead MoreNature Conservation And Its Impacts On Local Communities1642 Words   |  7 Pageshad it limits and it has had its advantages but all those depends on who is the subject we look at. Neoliberalism can be defined in a lot of different ways by scholars but the general definition of neoliberalism is the political term used for the theory whereby the economy is open to investors, and the free market is given priority. Neoliberalism has its key players as the state, the market and the civil society. These three key actors in neoliberalism can define the term in different ways as theRead MoreEssay about How Essential Is Memory to Us?934 Words   |  4 Pages past. Regarding to me I never wondered how our memory will become less about what we remembered and more about ourselves. Nevertheless, Proust made me look at memory more elaborately; he changed my view on humans on the subject of memory. Proust’s theory of memory, said that memory isn’t completely the truth of the past, because it’s full with mistakes. Unsophisticatedly, I thought how can this be true? But, after taking into consideration of the mind changing quote of Proust, changed my opinion aboutRead MoreHow Does The Hippocampus Plays A Vital Role? Memory Retrieval?1306 Words   |  6 Pagesprocess in which retrieval occurs is an ongoing debate. The two theories that are dominant in this debate are the Standard Model of Systems Consolidation (SMSC) and the Multiple Trace Theory (MTT). This paper will provide a review on the evidence supporting these two composing theories, the research providing evidence against the models, and finally their limitations. Additionally, a novel theory coined the Competitive Trace Theory (CTT) will be reviewed in order to conclude whether or not this modelRead MoreThe Tragedy Of King Lear Essay1745 Words   |  7 Pagesnatural social order, which is then repre sented by the natural world. The natural world and nature of society become intertwined as the plot unfolds, and, is wholly represented within the storm scenes in Act III. The society in King Lear is based on the theory of The Great Chain of Being; the idea that society runs under the following order of God, the King, Noblemen, Commoners, and lastly Animals. In The Tragedy of King Lear, the natural world is an extension of man himself as it is depicted as a reflection

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Inappropriate Behavior in the Workplace - 2391 Words

Inappropriate Behavior What civil rights laws may prohibit Marwan’s conduct with his fellow co-worker? â€Å"The definition of sexual harassment stated in the EEOC Guidelines and accepted by the U.S. Supreme Court is â€Å"unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature,† which implicitly or explicitly make submission a term or condition of employment; make employment decisions related to the individual dependent on submission to or rejection of such conduct, or have the purpose or effect of creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment (Kubasek, 2009, p. 600).† Do those laws apply to his conduct toward the park guest? Yes, they do insomuch as his unwanted sexual advances†¦show more content†¦The nature of the employment is most likely ‘at will’, in which the employer and employee are free at any time to terminate the employment (Kubasek, 2009). If the employment manual laid out grounds for termination and did not include ‘at will’, there is a possibility that a court would rule that the employee reasonably took the printed manual at face value, although in this particular case the employer would be able to counter with misconduct which is also assumed to be in said manual under just cause for termination (Kubasek, 2009). What actions and steps should Studio Five take against Marwan? In Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc., the court determined that circumstances were to be taken into account when determining whether a work environment was made hostile or abusive and some of those circumstances were the frequency, the severity, and the physical or verbal nature of the harassment (Kubasek, 2009). Given that the employee’s conduct in this situation met all of those criteria in that it was frequent, threatening and physical, discipline should not be considered and the employment should be immediately terminated. Explain what actions you considered and why you either recommendShow MoreRelatedHaving Effective Policies In Place Is Important When Dealing1283 Words   |  6 Pagesbe very helpful by providing guidelines to user behavior through general principles. If this policy was not implemented, employees would not have an idea of the behavior expected when using the computers at Escape. Some of the problems that can arise as consequences are that they could use the computers for their personal use like social media, checking their email, buying online, watching videos or movies, listening to music, or even do inappropriate things with computers. Also, if employees clickRead MoreCriminal Justice Interns Observations Of Misconduct : An Exploratory Study Essay798 Words   |  4 Pagesjustice system reported that they had observed behavior they suspected to be illegal behavior for a law enforcement agency. (CITE). Due to this ongoing problem, colleges as well as specific agencies assisting stu dents in learning how to handle inappropriate situations in a proper manner. Educators of students who wish to complete internships are commonly concerned as to how their student will react when exposed to unethical and inappropriate behavior. A surprising 87 percent of criminal justice programsRead MoreThe State Of Sexual Harassment858 Words   |  4 PagesHarassment in the US Workplace Today? Journal of Global Business Management, 8(1), 133-138. Unwanted sexual advances are inappropriate whether or not an individual is at work. This article speaks to the minds of people who have been sexually harassed at work in the 2000s. When written, the article explained that in the last two years sexual harassment in the workplace had actually increased. It also explains the difference between a minor incident that may involve an inappropriate comment and many inappropriateRead MoreWorkplace Violence773 Words   |  4 PagesA major component of any workplace violence program is prevention. Program development and union involvement, are important parts of a workplace violence prevention program in government. There are specific measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of violent behavior. The first question many people ask when starting to develop a workplace violence prevention program is, how can we identify potentially violent individuals? It is understandable that people want to know this -- and that earlyRead MoreSexual Harassment Within The Workplace1567 Words   |  7 Pagesoffice-based practices have existing sexual harassment policies in place. This paper will explore both sexual harassment and non-sexual harassment within the workplace and the various components that are associated with harassment. I will integrate research on the causes and consequences of sexual harassment victimization within the workplace. This paper will also review existing literature on sexual harassment with an objective of assessing progress made within the field. The paper will also addressRead MoreThe Traits That Make Helen Frye An Effective Leader1324 Words   |  6 Pagesemployees to exceed company objectives. Second, Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand human emotion and act on it in a positive way. Managers with a high emotional intelligence can read the emotions of their employees and manage their behaviors effectively. Moreover, they have the ability to communicate effectively, de-escalate conflicts, and inspire others. Frye believes emotional intelligence is the key to motivating employees and success in business. As an example of emotional intelligenceRead MoreHorizontal Violence in Nursing1512 Words   |  7 Pages  2012). Even though workplace politics exists in every profession, the effects of horizontal violence, or bullying, in nursing is a costly behavior. Nurses feel devalued in the workplace and experience psychological effects. Patients are likely to experience less favorable outcomes, and retention is difficult costing facilities large amounts of money to recruit and hire replacements. Types of violence Horizontal violence is physical and or verbal behavior that is believed by the recipientRead MorePreventing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace1166 Words   |  5 PagesPreventing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Does the phrase â€Å"That’s what she said.† sound familiar? The phrase is from the popular hit television series The Office. The guy behind this popular quote is none other than Dunder Mifflin’s Michael Scott. This quote is not only inappropriate but it is also a form of sexual harassment and Michael Scott is the king of sexual harassment. Unfortunately sexual harassment is a problem that is occurring in the workplace. In another popular movie, HorribleRead MoreManaging Diversity in the Workplace1356 Words   |  6 Pagesare instances, however, when workplace behavior can get out of hand and be inappropriate, causing a rift between employees. Many companies today hold yearly ethics courses designed to pinpoint an acceptable quality of behavior from their employees and also open up the floor to those who have issues with the company and its policies. Sometimes confronting an issue head on in a supportive environment will help find a positive solution to any issu es of harassment or workplace abuse. Harassment should notRead MoreSexual Harassment At An Organization Essay1485 Words   |  6 PagesHarassment in an Organization By: Elsie Alex Organizational Behavior Professor Patricia Sokol September 15, 2016 Abstract This essay is based on sexual harassment in the workplace. It gives examples of what sexual harassment is and knowing how to identify sexual harassment in an organization. This essay takes information from different articles describing sexual harassment and discrimination in the workplace. It gives scenarios and examples of sexual harassment. It also explains

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Organizations Face Today Is Of Staff-Free Samples for Students

Question: Organizations Face Today Is the Of Staff Recruitment Challenges? Answer: Introducation One of the major problems organizations face today is the recruitment of staff. Though reports in Australia might site that majority of the population are jobless, organizations have also reported that recruiting is a major problem within the region. One of the organizations that have experienced the problem is Woolworth Limited. The organization has reported several problems related to recruiting in its annual reports for the past few years. Some of the common problems reported include labor supply and demand, demographic issues among other labor concerns that would be discussed in this article. Woolworth Limited is a retail organization that has its operations spread across the entire nation of Australia (Jones, Humphreys, Adena, 2014). The supermarket is the second largest organization in the nation. In this discussion, therefore, the recruitment problems as faced by Woolworth Limited in Australia will be discussed with the possible solution to each problem outlined as well. One of the major problems in recruiting has been the supply of labor for the organization. Despite operating within most urban centers in Australia where there are high populations, the organization has limited supply of workforce because most people are engaged in some other activities. The remaining part of the population is unskilled with the other portion showing little interest in the job opportunities within the organization. Another factor leading to the labor supply shortage in Australia is the fact that most of the customers to the organization do not prefer working because fewer of them have studied courses related to most of the available jobs within the organization. There are other problems that contribute to inadequate labor supply in Australia. The possible recommended solutions to the labor problem for Woolworths Limited would include the following proposals; the organization should first consider training its staff. Training a staff might be expensive but is it one sure way of ensuring that the supply of labor is maintained. By training, it would be possible for the organization to recruit the local populations within its operations (Jackson Daly, 2014). The position of the organization would most likely improve with the local populations included in its services since the locals would prefer the organization to other organizations within the region. Increasing employee wages would be another way of solving the labor supply problem. Another recruiting problem for the organization is the high labor demand within Australia. The nation is rich in industries and organizations that all require labor within their services. The high demand for labor has been cited as a major problem to the organization as it suffers inadequate labor within its services for most of the parts it operates in. Most people within the populations are engaged in other activities in other organizations and businesses (Humphreys, Hegney, Lipscombe, Gregory Chater, 2012). With the increased population, the increased number of customers demand and improved service providers that have proved to be a major problem for the organization. Labor is an essential part of any organization. The recommended solution to the labor demand problem would include improving the employee benefits such as rewards, better wages among other interesting employee tokens that would attract them to the organization. With the high demand of employees, proper working conditions would be another concern that would most likely attract more laborers to the organization. The truth of the matter is that most people are not seeking for jobs but the wages from the jobs in order to improve their living conditions. The human resource department of the organization should consider improving such conditions in order to attract more workers to the organization. The image of the organization is another factor to consider for the problem in recruitment as has been experienced by the organization. Most people in Australia consider the organization as a sales organization (Struber, 2014). Compared to other organizations within the nation, Woolworths received the least job application letters. Most people assume that the organizations main objective is to supply the retail services across the nation without minding how it recruits its employees. As a result, most job seekers have over time neglected the organization as they prefer other organizations. Another factor related to the image of the organization is the fact that most people assume that the only jobs at the supermarket involve being a teller and customer assistance only. The most probable solution to the problem with the image of the company could only be the organization clearing itself through any possible means to the public by outlining the roles it plays within the labor market. Such announcements would act as awareness to the job seekers and also change the image of the organization to the public (Clinton Hazelton, 2016). The image of the organization is not only important in providing it with workforce but would also help in marketing as more customers would be attracted. It is normal for a population to reject an organization that does not recruit their people because it does not contribute to the economic development. Demographic issues also contribute to labor and recruitment problems for Woolworths Limited organization. An example of workforce and recruitment problem is aging workforce. It has been a culture of the organization to hire experienced workers and maintain them as long as possible. The factor contributes to problems for the organization as it provided the organization with the required experience hence more profits (Stanley, 2017). However, it becomes a problem for the organization when such employees retire, or in worst cases, they die. The problems experienced in recruiting new employees might not be easy. The organization will hence suffer from either recruiting inexperienced employees or failing to find a perfect replacement. The most suitable solution to the problem would be to train employees as mentioned earlier. Training is one sure way of ensuring that the organization maintains a constant flow of employees with the same quality of performance (Creegan, Duffield Forrester, 2013). In training, the organization is also secure in any unexpected cases like death. It becomes easy for another person to take over than in most cases that the organization would have to consider hiring new employees upon death or retirement of the existing employees. The generations within Australia today prefer private businesses and not employment into other institutions. Most people in the current generation are in dire need of capital to initiate their businesses. Creating a personal business according to most researchers within the nation has proved that people have turned their focus to private businesses than employment (Humphreys, Jones, Jones Mara, 2012). The changes in life over generations have been the cause of such a reaction from the Australian population. The trust based on the private businesses is that a person becomes his or her manager. The freedom of control that people enjoy in the private business is the exact opposite of what would be experienced in employment where the full control is bestowed in the organization. The most likely solution to the recruitment problem based on the influence of generation is that the organization should ensure that it motivates people to consider employment as a solution to certain problems e xperienced by the people (Beach, Brereton Cliff, 2013). In the case of Australia, the people should be convinced that in order to initiate their businesses they would need the experience from employment first. As technology changes the world, a lot of things keep changing. Diversity as it is influences people as well. The influence, in turn, affects businesses in that it limits the number of people available for employment in most areas (Humphreys, Jones, Jones, Hugo, Bamford Taylor, 2016). The current technological developments in Australia involve internetworking. People tend to refrain from the manual labor that is offered by most organizations as they major their activities to the cheap and affordable internet jobs. The benefits from the internet businesses are more than in employment and are easy to acquire. However, this problem would be solved cheaply by informing the populations about the adverse disadvantages of internetworking (Patrickson, Hartmann, 2015). The awareness about the side effects of the internetworking and other businesses would be a possibility to make the people think of employment again. As for this organization, it would be necessary to advise the employees to consider the internet as a side job that they would venture into during their free times. Recruitment strategies used by Woolworths is another recruitment problem that the organization has experienced over time. The employer branding of the organization is one of the recruitment strategies that has been a problem for the organization. Employer branding is the process by which the customers prefer to the organization (Mills, Francis Bonner, 2017). Employer branding would either be negative or positive depending on the manner in which the organization handles its customers. Woolworths has been experiencing the problem of employer branding because most people in the Australian society do not like the organization based on its recruitment and contribution to the society. The organization should consider improving its services to the people and the society. Sparing a percentage of the employment opportunities within the organization for the local population is one effective way through which the organization would win the trust of the population (Humphreys, Wakerman, Wells, K uipers, Jones Entwistle, 2015). Earning the trust of the people through the participation in the infrastructure and other forms of development is another way to which the organization could have a positive reflection from the populations in Australia. The types of advertisement on the job opportunities from the organization have been highly ineffective. The advertisements made through the television, radios and other forms like the magazines are highly ineffective in the world today. The uses of posters as in the case of the organization are the other unlikely ways through which the organization makes all its advertisements. These means of advertisements are highly ineffective in the world today. The forms of advertisements and most organizational processes in the current world are those that are highly digitized (Schoo, Stagnitti, Mercer, Dunbar, 2015). The use of the social media, for instance, is a common way of making advertisements effectively today. According to the researchers in marketing, if the organization decides to consider using the modern means of advertisements, there are higher chances that the organization would make more profits as well as maintain its practices within the region it operates. An improvement in the modern ways of advertisement is affordable as it requires limited funds to initiate. Woolworths as one of the greatest organizations in Australia should consider its position in the market. The organization faces a recruitment problem that might soon become a crisis. It is the responsibility of the managers of the organization to perform the necessary researchers on the recruitment problem and design the most appropriate solution to the recruitment problem (Wakerman, Humphreys, Wells, Kuipers, Entwistle, Jones, 2014). Solving the problems in recruitment for the organization would be another better way to convince most of the local customers to the organization since the organization would involve the local populations within the areas that the organization operates. In conclusion, recruitment is a common problem in most organizations across the world today. In Australia, most organizations experience the problem despite the high populations within the nation. One of the organizations that have experienced recruitment problems within its services is the Woolworth Limited organization (DNetto, Sohal, 2012). Some of the labor problems result from demography, advertisement techniques and labor supply and demand within Australia. Some of these problems have been discussed in this essay with the probable solutions also highlighted. The organization is therefore urged to consider the proposals made in this essay in addition to other effective proposals from researchers in order to solve the recruitment problem completely. Solving the problem would be beneficial to the organization not only in acquiring the needed labor but also to improve its position in the market as most customers would be attracted to the business. It is, however, the responsibilit y of the organization to consider making the necessary adjustments that would place it in the competitive market effectively. References Beach, R., Brereton, D., Cliff, D. (2013). Workforce turnover in FIFO mining operations in Australia: An exploratory study.Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, Brisbane. Clinton, M., Hazelton, M. (2016). Scoping practice issues in the Australian mental health nursing workforce.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing,9(3), 100-109. Creegan, R., Duffield, C., Forrester, K. (2013). Casualisation of the nursing workforce in Australia: driving forces and implications.Australian Health Review,26(1), 201-208. DNetto, B., Sohal, A. S. (2012). Human resource practices and workforce diversity: an empirical assessment.International Journal of Manpower,20(8), 530-547. Humphreys, J. S., Jones, M. P., Jones, J. A., Mara, P. R. (2012). Workforce retention in rural and remote Australia: determining the factors that influence length of practice.Medical Journal of Australia,176(10), 472-476. Humphreys, J. S., Wakerman, J., Wells, R., Kuipers, P., Jones, J. A., Entwistle, P. (2015). " Beyond workforce": a systemic solution for health service provision in small rural and remote communities.Medical Journal of Australia,188(8), S77. Humphreys, J., Hegney, D., Lipscombe, J., Gregory, G., Chater, B. (2012). Whither rural health? Reviewing a decade of progress in rural health.Australian Journal of Rural Health,10(1), 2-14. Humphreys, J., Jones, J., Jones, M., Hugo, G., Bamford, E., Taylor, D. (2016). A critical review of rural medical workforce retention in Australia.Australian Health Review,24(4), 91-102. Jackson, D., Daly, J. (2014). Current challenges and issues facing nursing in Australia.Nursing Science Quarterly,17(4), 352-355. Jones, J. A., Humphreys, J. S., Adena, M. A. (2014). Rural GPs' ratings of initiatives designed to improve rural medical workforce recruitment and retention.Rural and remote health,4(3), 314. Mills, J., Francis, K., Bonner, A. (2017). The problem of workforce for the social world of Australian rural nurses: a collective action frame analysis.Journal of Nursing Management,15(7), 721-730. Patrickson, M., Hartmann, L. (2015). Australias ageing population: Implications for human resource management.International Journal of Manpower,16(5/6), 34-46. Schoo, A., Stagnitti, K., Mercer, C., Dunbar, J. (2015). A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.Rural and remote health,5(477), 1-18. Stanley, D. (2017). Multigenerational workforce issues and their implications for leadership in nursing.Journal of Nursing Management,18(7), 846-852. Struber, J. C. (2014). Recruiting and retaining allied health professionals in rural Australia: why is it so difficult?.Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice,2(2), 2. Wakerman, J., Humphreys, J. S., Wells, R., Kuipers, P., Entwistle, P., Jones, J. (2014). Primary health care delivery models in rural and remote Australiaa systematic review.BMC Health Services Research,8(1), 276.

Monday, April 6, 2020

Race, Ethnicity and Role of Police an Example of the Topic Government and Law Essays by

Race, Ethnicity and Role of Police Some Harlem residents dubbed the event the Million Cop March since the quantum of police force out on the streets of demonstrators were equal to the estimated 6,500 demonstrators, where 3000 uniformed cops totally packed formed a human wall around the rally with other 250 community affairs police in light blue polo shirts moving along with the marchers. It was the perfect place for the Giuliani administration to demonstrate the police state operation in the minority working class neighborhood. (Vann, 1998) Need essay sample on "Race, Ethnicity and Role of Police" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Amnesty International in 1998 documented the conduct of police force. In its United States of America: Rights for All (AI Index: AMR 51/35/98), the organization posited the patterns of ill treatment including beatings by the police, unjustified shootings and the use of dangerous methods claiming to uphold the suspects. Whereas only the minority of the many law enforcement officers engaged themselves in the brutal actions, Amnesty International came out with fact that very little was done to check the abusers or anything was done to make sure that the tactics of the police did not involve unnecessary force or injury. Their report also indicated various abuses in some jurisdictions or police precincts. (Amnesty International, 1999) All the above examples present the racial and ethnic minorities as truly the victims of police misconduct, along-with getting subjected to false arrests, harassments, verbal and physical abuses. All organizations have their own culture and this is true with the police force too. The police culture in its traditional role was developed as a means to maintain the equal status in the society and impart uniformity but the changes and the different norms, expectations, rites and rituals and traditions in the police department imparts different challenge. Each police agency has its own cultural norms, rites, rituals, common language, and traditions that have become quite strong. The incidents of police misconduct continue to be grave in West Virginia; when asked about the police role to the West Virginia State Police Chief Howard E. Hill Jr., he aptly replied, law enforcement officers place their lives on the line every single day and deal with the dregs of society that others avoid . Many officers are injured or killed trying to protect the public.(West Virginia Advisory Committee to The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2004, p. 2) To reduce the harm to others and upon themselves, police have to make quick judgment and act promptly, especially in cases, which are volatile and potentially dangerous and deadly. Straight forwardly law enforcement officers have to perform their duty towards the public which is not every easy. Law has also given rights to the law enforcement officers to adopt what is appropriate in certain dangerous situations, while apprehending alleged criminals and protecting themselves and others. It has also been found that many of the adverse actions by certain police officers neither form the part nor are the representation of the entire police force. But there is no doubt of the fact that vast number of law enforcement officers in West Virginia are very hard working and are conscious about their duties and well being towards the society and according them their harsh and aggressive use of their power is only an exception and not a norm. It was noted by the State commentators in early 2000 that accusations in as early as 2000 in West Virginia has been on the increase. In Charleston, a simple system of complaint was adopted but the increase in complaints on the misconduct by the police officers nullified these procedures. The State law has made it mandatory for every state police to investigate on any complaint pertaining to the use of the excessive force by the state troopers. In the first 11 months of 1998 in Charleston, 24 allegations were alleged on the police officers, but only seven cases were investigated. As compared to it in the first six months during 2000, the Charleston Police Department made the use of force 122 times with showing their firearms, using their hands to get alleged criminals to handcuff, and other aggressive methods accounting to physical injuries. (West Virginia Advisory Committee to The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2004) There is an internal professional standard section within the state police handling allegations on police misconduct by the state police officers. But there are limitations to its powers with the process beginning with an officer in charge (OIC) who appoints an investigator to initiate an internal enquiry regarding the matter. The investigator collects the evidence and makes recommendations regarding the disciplinary action to the OIC, who then also gives recommendations to the superintendent of police, who gives the final decision to undertake disciplinary action. As response to this determination, the accused officer gets a chance to present a defense at a pre-deprivation hearing and appeal can also be made by a grievance procedure presided over by an administrative law judge. These offenses appear under three categories depending on their severity- one, which are less severe, secondly more severe, and thirdly those cases, which are of very serious in nature. The third category off ences form unnecessary force during an arrest/custody. In these cases superintendent can discharge an officer. Each city of West Virginia has a civil service system depending upon the size governing the process of testing, hiring and maintaining the discipline of country employees. But the officers in authority themselves are not satisfied with the procedures as there are lot of hierarchal layers and sittings of review panel involved. It was found that police chiefs strong position was not enough to agree or disagree the abuse of authority and there is an ardent need of the good supervisors to keep in check the abuses. (West Virginia Advisory Committee to The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2004) The action of the police force in case of domestic violence depends on the gravity of the case and if there is a probable cause. Particularly women of color and poor women have limited access to the legal processes, and are more prone to emotional abuse. The traditional ways other social institutions especially police responds to the violence against women is complicated by racism, as a result battered women belonging to difference ethnicity and race feel themselves disadvantaged. Battered women as advocated by court are given less respect by prosecutors and judges as compared to her counterparts white woman. She is often derided as being one of those white womens liberals who has betrayed her own while working on problems like domestic violence that will further stigmatize and destroy the men of color who are charged with battering. (Baur, E Cayleff, 1993). It has come to light that police generally present lackadaisical approach on rape cases. Only few percent of rape cases investigated lead to conviction. Detectives too do not apply the same professionalism in cases of rape as they do with other serious offences. Police are often blamed for attending to complainants especially women of color with skepticisms and inertia. It was the case reported on 25th July 2007 on Lesslie Iron rod, who was 20 years old. She was brutally raped and was hospitalized. Police was called and investigated process underwent and despite reporting whole incident to the police and also names of the miscreants involved in raping her investigations came to a dead stop with her death and no charges were filed against any of the miscreants. Justice department found that it is very likely that one among every three Native American women will be raped during her lifetime and in many cases these cases would often go unnoticed, unreported, or uninvestigated. Native Am ericans are landed in the health centers where they lack in the facility to collect DNA samples. Similarly are the cases of the child abuse. They are either unreported or most of the time under investigated. It is quite true children and youths becomes easy target of adults taking them into the world of crime and drug abuse while ignoring the responsibility they have for their safety and support. Police respond properly and without prejudice and undue force on the needs of the young people. There is always a negative stereotyping on both the sides and the police have to be susceptible to the trouble from any counter, yet the successful policing requires the stereotypes to be broken and must take robust, firm and effective steps. In many of the cases, police adopted prejudice approach where the gravity and the sensitivity of the issue is involved. The policing process can become a success if sustained or firm or fixed actions are undertaken and they are more sensitive towards youth problems and their needs. Young people from various ethnic backgrounds can be involved in the process of community policies that can access the needs of the other youths and take actions accordingly. To achieve gthis aim, first all kinds of stereotypes needs to be broken and also broken all the barriers dividing people to people on the basis of the race, ethnicity or color. Reference List Amnesty International. 1999. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: RACE, RIGHTS AND POLICE BRUTALITY. Bair Barbara, Cayleff E. Susan, 1993, Wings of Gauze: Women of Color and the Experience of Health and Illness, Wayne State University Press Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Responses to the Problem of Disorderly Youth in Public Places. Sullivan Laura, 2007, Rape Cases on Indian Lands Go Uninvestigated, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=12203114 Vann, B. 1998. The "Million Youth March": Racist demagogy and police-state repression. Retrieved on September 20, 2008 from W.W.W: http://www.wsws.org/news/1998/sep1998/mym-s10.shtml West Virginia Advisory Committee to The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. 2004. Coping with Police Misconduct in West Virginia.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

New Years Eve - Classic Essay by Charles Lamb

New Years Eve - Classic Essay by Charles Lamb An accountant in India House in London for more than 30 years and caregiver for his sister Mary (who, in a fit of mania, had stabbed their mother to death), Charles Lamb was one of the great masters of the English essay. The most intimate of the early-19th-century essayists, Lamb relied on stylistic artifice (whim-whams, as he referred to his antique diction and far-fetched comparisons) and a contrived persona known as Elia. As George L. Barnett has observed, Lambs egoism suggests more than Lambs person: it awakens in the reader reflections of kindred feelings and affections (Charles Lamb: The Evolution of Elia, 1964). In the essay New Years Eve, which first appeared in the January 1821 issue of The London Magazine, Lamb reflects wistfully on the passage of time. You may find it interesting to compare Lambs essay with three others in our collection: At the Turn of the Year, by Fiona Macleod (William Sharp)Last Year, by Horace SmithThe New Year, by George William CurtisJanuary in the Sussex Woods, by Richard Jefferies New Years Eve by Charles Lamb 1 Every man hath two birth-days: two days, at least, in every year, which set him upon revolving the lapse of time, as it affects his mortal duration. The one is that which in an especial manner he termeth his. In the gradual desuetude of old observances, this custom of solemnizing our proper birth-day hath nearly passed away, or is left to children, who reflect nothing at all about the matter, nor understand any thing in it beyond cake and orange. But the birth of a New Year is of an interest too wide to be pretermitted by king or cobbler. No one ever regarded the First of January with indifference. It is that from which all date their time, and count upon what is left. It is the nativity of our common Adam. 2 Of all sounds of all bells(bells, the music nighest bordering upon heaven)most solemn and touching is the peal which rings out the Old Year. I never hear it without a gathering-up of my mind to a concentration of all the images that have been diffused over the past twelvemonth; all I have done or suffered, performed or neglectedin that regretted time. I begin to know its worth, as when a person dies. It takes a personal colour; nor was it a poetical flight in a contemporary, when he exclaimed   I saw the skirts of the departing Year. It is no more than what in sober sadness every one of us seems to be conscious of, in that awful leave-taking. I am sure I felt it, and all felt it with me, last night; though some of my companions affected rather to manifest an exhilaration at the birth of the coming year, than any very tender regrets for the decease of its predecessor. But I am none of those who   Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest. I am naturally, beforehand, shy of novelties; new books, new faces, new years, from some mental twist which makes it difficult in me to face the prospective. I have almost ceased to hope; and am sanguine only in the prospects of other (former) years. I plunge into foregone visions and conclusions. I encounter pell-mell with past disappointments. I am armour-proof against old discouragements. I forgive, or overcome in fancy, old adversaries. I play over again for love, as the gamesters phrase it, games, for which I once paid so dear. I would scarce now have any of those untoward accidents and events of my life reversed. I would no more alter them than the incidents of some well-contrived novel. Methinks, it is better that I should have pined away seven of my goldenest years, when I was thrall to the fair hair, and fairer eyes, of Alice Wn, than that so passionate a love-adventure should be lost. It was better that our family should have missed that legacy, which old Dorrell cheated us of, than that I should have at this moment two thousand pounds in banco, and be without the idea of that specious old rogue. 3 In a degree beneath manhood, it is my infirmity to look back upon those early days. Do I advance a paradox, when I say, that, skipping over the intervention of forty years, a man may have leave to love himself, without the imputation of self-love? 4 If I know aught of myself, no one whose mind is introspectiveand mine is painfully socan have a less respect for his present identity, than I have for the man Elia. I know him to be light, and vain, and humorsome; a notorious ***; addicted to ****: averse from counsel, neither taking it, nor offering it;*** besides; a stammering buffoon; what you will; lay it on, and spare not; I subscribe to it all, and much more, than thou canst be willing to lay at his doorbut for the child Eliathat other me, there, in the back-groundI must take leave to cherish the remembrance of that young masterwith as little reference, I protest, to this stupid changeling of five-and-forty, as if it had been a child of some other house, and not of my parents. I can cry over its patient small-pox at five, and rougher medicaments. I can lay its poor fevered head upon the sick pillow at Christs, and wake with it in surprise at the gentle posture of maternal tenderness hanging over it, that unknown had watched i ts sleep. I know how it shrank from any the least colour of falsehood. God help thee, Elia, how art thou changed! Thou art sophisticated. I know how honest, how courageous (for a weakling) it washow religious, how imaginative, how hopeful! From what have I not fallen, if the child I remember was indeed myself, and not some dissembling guardian, presenting a false identity, to give the rule to my unpractised steps, and regulate the tone of my moral being! 5 That I am fond of indulging, beyond a hope of sympathy, in such retrospection, may be the symptom of some sickly idiosyncrasy. Or is it owing to another cause; simply, that being without wife or family, I have not learned to project myself enough out of myself; and having no offspring of my own to dally with, I turn back upon memory and adopt my own early idea, as my heir and favourite? If these speculations seem fantastical to thee, reader (a busy man, perchance), if I tread out of the way of thy sympathy, and am singularly-conceited only, I retire, impenetrable to ridicule, under the phantom cloud of Elia. 6The elders, with whom I was brought up, were of a character not likely to let slip the sacred observance of any old institution; and the ringing out of the Old Year was kept by them with circumstances of peculiar ceremony. In those days the sound of those midnight chimes, though it seemed to raise hilarity in all around me, never failed to bring a train of pensive imagery into my fancy. Yet I then scarce conceived what it meant, or thought of it as a reckoning that concerned me. Not childhood alone, but the young man till thirty, never feels practically that he is mortal. He knows it indeed, and, if need were, he could preach a homily on the fragility of life; but he brings it not home to himself, any more than in a hot June we can appropriate to our imagination the freezing days of December. But now, shall I confess a truth? I feel these audits but too powerfully. I begin to count the probabilities of my duration, and to grudge at the expenditure of moments and shortest periods, li ke misers farthings. In proportion as the years both lessen and shorten, I set more count upon their periods, and would fain lay my ineffectual finger upon the spoke of the great wheel. I am not content to pass away like a weavers shuttle. Those  metaphors  solace me not, nor sweeten the unpalatable draught of mortality. I care not to be carried with the tide, that smoothly bears human life to eternity; and reluct at the inevitable course of destiny. I am in love with this green earth; the face of town and country; the unspeakable rural solitudes, and the sweet security of streets. I would set up my tabernacle here. I am content to stand still at the age to which I am arrived; I, and my friends: to be no younger, no richer, no  handsomer. I do not want to be weaned by age; or drop, like mellow fruit, as they say, into the grave. Any alteration, on this earth of mine, in diet or in lodging, puzzles and discomposes me. My household-gods plant a terrible fixed foot, and are not rooted up without bloo d. They do not willingly seek Lavinian shores. A new state of being staggers me. 7  Sun, and sky, and breeze, and solitary walks, and summer holidays, and the greenness of fields, and the delicious juices of meats and fishes, and society, and the cheerful glass, and candle-light, and  fire-side  conversations, and innocent vanities, and jests, and  irony itselfdo these things go out with life? 8  Can a ghost laugh, or shake his gaunt sides, when you are pleasant with him? 9  And you, my midnight darlings, my Folios! must I part with the intense delight of having you (huge armfuls) in my embraces? Must knowledge come to me, if it come at all, by some awkward experiment of intuition, and no longer by this familiar process of reading? 10  Shall I enjoy friendships there, wanting the smiling indications which point me to them here,the recognisable facethe sweet assurance of a look? 11  In winter this intolerable disinclination to dyingto give it its mildest namedoes more especially haunt and beset me. In a genial August noon, beneath a sweltering sky, death is almost problematic. At those times do such poor snakes as myself enjoy an immortality. Then we expand and burgeon. Then are we as strong again, as valiant again, as wise again, and a great deal taller. The blast that nips and shrinks me, puts me in thoughts of death. All things allied to the insubstantial, wait upon that master feeling; cold, numbness, dreams, perplexity; moonlight itself, with its shadowy and spectral appearances,that cold ghost of the sun, or Phoebus sickly sister, like that innutritious one denounced in the Canticles:I am none of her minionsI hold with the Persian. 12  Whatsoever thwarts, or puts me out of my way, brings death into my mind. All partial evils, like humours, run into that capital plague-sore. I have heard some profess an indifference to life. Such hail the end of their existence as a port of refuge; and speak of the grave as of some soft arms, in which they may slumber as on a pillow. Some have wooed deathbut out upon thee, I say, thou foul, ugly phantom! I detest, abhor, execrate, and (with Friar John) give thee to six-score thousand devils, as in no instance to be excused or tolerated, but shunned as a universal viper; to be branded, proscribed, and spoken evil of! In no way can I be brought to digest thee, thou thin, melancholy  Privation, or more frightful and confounding  Positive! 13  Those antidotes, prescribed against the fear of thee, are altogether frigid and insulting, like thyself. For what satisfaction hath a man, that he shall lie down with kings and emperors in death, who in his  life-time  never greatly coveted  the society of such bed-fellows?or, forsooth, that so shall the fairest face appear?why, to comfort me, must Alice Wn be a goblin? More than all, I conceive disgust at those impertinent and misbecoming familiarities, inscribed upon your ordinary tombstones. Every dead man must take upon himself to be lecturing me with his odious truism, that such as he now is, I must shortly be. Not so shortly, friend, perhaps, as thou imaginest. In the meantime I am alive. I move about. I am worth twenty of thee. Know thy betters! Thy New Years Days are past. I survive, a jolly candidate for 1821. Another cup of wineand while that turn-coat bell, that just now mournfully chanted the obsequies of 1820 departed, with changed notes lustily rings in a su ccessor, let us attune to its peal the song made on a like occasion, by hearty, cheerful Mr. Cotton. THE NEW YEARHark, the cock crows, and yon bright starTells us, the day himselfs not far;And see where, breaking from the night,He gilds the western hills with light.With him old Janus doth appear,Peeping into the future year,With such a look as seems to say,The prospect is not good that way.Thus do we rise ill sights to see,And gainst ourselves to prophesy;When the prophetic fear of thingsA more tormenting mischief brings,More full of soul-tormenting gall,Than direst mischiefs can befall.But stay! but stay! methinks my sight,Better informd by clearer light,Discerns sereneness in that brow,That all contracted seemd but now.His reversd face may show distaste,And frown upon the ills are past;But that which this way looks is clear,And smiles upon the New-born Year.He looks too from a place so high,The Year lies open to his eye;And all the moments open areTo the exact discoverer.Yet more and more he smiles uponThe happy revolution.Why should we then suspect or fearThe influences of a year ,So smiles upon us the first morn,And speaks us good so soon as born?Plague ont! the last was ill enough,This cannot but make better proof;Or, at the worst, as we brushd throughThe last, why so we may this too;And then the next in reason shoudBe superexcellently good:For the worst ills (we daily see)Have no more perpetuity,Than the best fortunes that do fall;Which also bring us wherewithalLonger their being to support,Than those do of the other sort:And who has one good year in three,And yet repines at destiny,Appears ungrateful in the case,And merits not the good he has.Then let us welcome the New GuestWith lusty brimmers of the best;Mirth always should Good Fortune meet,And renders een Disaster sweet:And though the Princess turn her back,Let us but line ourselves with sack,We better shall by far hold out,Till the next Year she face about. 14  How say you, readerdo not these verses smack of the rough magnanimity of the old English  vein? Do they not fortify like a cordial; enlarging the heart, and productive of sweet blood, and generous spirits, in the concoction? Where be those puling fears of death, just now expressed or affected? Passed like a cloudabsorbed in the purging sunlight of clear poetryclean washed away by a wave of genuine Helicon, your only Spa for these hypochondriesAnd now another cup of the generous! and a merry New Year, and many of them, to you all, my masters! New Years Eve, by Charles Lamb, was first published in the January 1821 issue of  The London Magazine  and was included in  Essays of Elia, 1823 (reprinted by Pomona Press in 2006).

Friday, February 21, 2020

Trade preferences for developing countries Essay

Trade preferences for developing countries - Essay Example On the other hand, in 2005, the OECD3 conducted an empirical research and reached to the conclusion that multilateral trade liberalization implemented by the EU has resulted in comparatively higher sizeable corrosion of predilections than the liberalization processes implemented by countries like Canada, Japan, Australia, and the United States. Thus, the importance of the trade preferences provided by the EU proved to be relatively less in comparison with the preferential schemes provided by other countries. The conclusion of OECD has also been maintained by Nilsson in his empirical research conducted in 2007. In the year of 2007, Persson and Wilhelmsson4 put their effort to find that some particular EU preferential deals had produced great impacts, specifically the schemes that were offered to the Pacific countries as well as the African Caribbean nations. These kinds of findings had earlier been reported by Nilsson in 20025. However, the preference schemes of a donor country should be seen with respect to the overall trade openness of the donor. For instance, if a benefactor does not have a high figure relating to the imports covered under the preferential schemes, then this would result in the entrance of a bulky share of the donor’s imports under the mechanism of MFN-0 tariffs. In this case, the capacity for preferences is limited as well. As a result, no matter whether the utilization of the rate of preferences in such state of affairs is high or low, it no longer becomes so vital. For getting an accurate picture of the openness of a donor to imports from less developed or developing nations, it is vital to study the share and the quantity of imported commodities entering the EU under the scheme of MFN-0, the proportion and volume of dutiable imports, the proportion of imports entitled to preferential arrangements, and, finally, the rate of preference utilization. This paper will put its effort to examinee the impact of EU trade preferences towards developing countries with special focus on India on the basis of existing literatures. However, before moving onto analyzing the impact, the paper will discuss the existing trade preference scheme. Then, it will consider general impact on developing countries a s a whole and finally it will put its special focus on India. Scope and coverage of trade preferences forwarded by EU: The fundamental principle of World Trade Organization is to practice the non-discriminating attitudes among the trading partners. However, it has been accepted that the developing nations should get favored treatment, compatible with their relatively disadvantageous economic situations. During 1971, following one of the UNCTAD’s (United Nations Conference on Trade & Development) recommendations, it was pointed out that the nations that had entered into the agreement under the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), predecessor to what is now known as the WTO, had agreed upon on a waiver of ten-y ears for the